Friday, March 13, 2020
Sensory Integration Dysfunction/ Sensory Processing Disorder Free Online Research Papers Sensory Integration and Sensory Processing, or sensory motor processing, is our autonomic ability to receive sensory information interpret, organize, and respond to it. Both external and internal stimuli enter the body and neurological system. These senses are foundational because the information gained from our senses creates the foundation for future learning and decision making (Schneider, 2001). Information from each of the senses, movement of the body, and gravity must be integrated and interpreted before children can successfully function in the world around them (Cheatum, 2000). Our senses are responsible for things such as coordination, attention, arousal levels, emotions, memory, autonomic functioning, and higher level of cognitive functions. An interruption in the ability to absorb these senses into the learning environment is a sensory dysfunction or processing disorder. ( I will refer to this as sensory difficulties (SD) throughout this paper). The interpretations and reactions to sensory input are affected causing feedback on that information with motor, emotional, attention, and other responses in a flight or fight manner. Often they will have problems with interpersonal relations, academic achievements, behavior problems, vision problems, speech/articulation difficulties, eating problems, digestion and eliminating problems, sleep regulation problems, and very often coexists with allergies. One or more senses are over-or-under reactive to the stimuli. We often find SD secondary or coexisting in people with Autism, ADHD, pervasive developmental disorder, cerebral palsy, fragile X syndrome, severe mental retardation, learning difficulties, language problems, and other neurological and developmental disabilities. Many people are unaware that other than those with a documented disability, Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ children often have some form of SD. Dr. A Jean Ayres, Ph.D., an occupational therapist, came up with this theory in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 60Ã¢â¬â¢s. In the diagram of the Central Nervous System below, we see that starting on the bottom of the pyramid of our central nervous system we have our sensory system. There are three autonomic neurological sensory systems: Tactile, Vestibular, and Proprioception. Tactile system includes three types of receptors: light touch- pressure, or like a bug crawling on the arm; discrimination-textures; third, temperature and pain. The role of this sense is to perceive the environment and provide reactions that protect for survival. Tactile system dysfunctions result in refusal in eating certain textured foods, refusal to wear certain clothes, avoiding getting hands dirty, avoid being touched. Dysfunctions in this system often lead to irritability, distractibility, hyperactivity, aggression, and negative emotional response to touch sensations. (Hatch, 1995). Vestibular system is the inner ear, which detects movement and position of the head relating to gravity. A dysfunction in this system is two different ways. Children that are hypersensitive to Vestibular stimulation are fearful of movement activities such as swings or slides. They have a hard time learning to climb stairs or walk on uneven surfaces. These children appear to be very clumsy. Another way this system affects children is on the other extreme. This child may seek sensory experiences such as spinning. This child has a hypo-vestibular system and is constantly trying to stimulate their Vestibular system.(Hatch,1995). Proprioception system is awareness of body position referring to the muscles, joints, and tendons. A dysfunction in the Proprioception system affects the childÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of their body position in space. They have the tendency to fall, clumsiness, odd body posturing, resistant to motor movement, and difficulty manipulating small objects.(Hatch, 1995). If one stage of this pyramid is disrupted, the whole pyramid is thrown off. The effects are seen throughout the pyramid. Many times these problems get overlooked until it has become so severe that there are extreme behavior problems, health issues, family issues, social, emotional, and educational issues. Often we look at the symptoms/characteristics of the child instead of trying to find the actual cause. The more severe cases need to be assessed and treated by an Occupational Therapist. These children need to be evaluated by a professional and will be tested using the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (SIPT). (Stephens, 1997). For those other children that might seem to have some sensory issues, you need to understand their needs and make accommodations to help them become a successful learner. You might have 2-5 children in your classroom that have undocumented SD. First you must determine which sensory systems are involved in the area of need. You must also know where the child is developmentally. You need to make notes of what the child is doing (donÃ¢â¬â¢t focus only on what the child is not doing) and any patterns in the behavior. Some children differ from one day to the next, having off days and successful days. Be sure to make note of this. The child with SD may have a difficult time reading cues in the environment (both verbal and non-verbal). If the child is receiving the sensory information, they might not have the ability to organize this information and produce an efficient response. For these children everyday ordinary tasks are extremely challenging to perform and respond to. One or more common symptoms along with frequency, intensity, and duration may indicate SD. Frequency is how often throughout the day the behaviors are noticed. Intensity is the amount of avoidance or amount of seeking (depending on over or under stimulated) sensory information. Duration is how long each episode or unusual behavior lasts. When I refer to behavior, I mean all types not just bad behavior. You need to look at changes in the behavior or unusual behavior. There are several types of SD. I will describe some of the common behavioral patterns. Sensory-Avoiding Children These children have an over-responsive nervous system to sensation. This is also called sensory defensiveness (SPD Network). These children may be diagnosed with sensory over-responsivity. Some signs are: ? Be very picky eaters or sensitive to food smells ? Respond to being touched with aggression or withdrawal ? Fear movements and heights, or get sick from exposure to movement or heights ? Feel uncomfortable in loud or busy environments ? Be very cautious and unwilling to take risks or try new things Sensory-Seeking Children In some children their nervous system does not respond to sensory information. These children are considered under-responsive to sensation. Some behaviors seem in these children are: ? Hyperactivity ? Unaware of pain or touching others to hard ? Enjoy loud sounds often to loud ? Engaging in unsafe activities Motor Skills Problems Some children have Motor Skills problems where they cannot carry out actions. They appear clumsy and accident prone. Some things you might notice in these children are: ? Trouble with balance, sequences of movement, and bilateral coordination ? Very poor fine motor skills ? Very poor gross motor skills ? Difficulty initiating movements ? A preference for sedentary activities like reading a book or watching TV ? A preference for playing with familiar toys These children often appear to be manipulative, unhappy, controlling, and frustrated. They are often labeled as the Ã¢â¬Å"class clownÃ¢â¬ . They try to mask their problems often avoiding group activities. (SPD Network). Some other SD are Auditory defensiveness related to sound. You might see the child always covering up their ears. They might be afraid of things such as the lawn mower, hair dryer, and vacuum. Another SD is Visual defensiveness with hypersensitivity to light. Then there is oral-motor defensiveness also known as tactile defensiveness in the mouth. Brush teeth can be very distressful for this child. Olfactory defensiveness is intolerance to smells. (Stephens, 1997). Being aware of these possible SD is one of the first steps. Now it is time to learn some techniques that might help the SD child. One technique that I am really aware of is an individualized sensory diet. A sensory diet has nothing to do with food, instead it is Ã¢â¬Å"the multisensory experiences that one normally seeks on a daily basis to satisfy oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sensory appetite; a planned and scheduled activity program that an occupational therapist develops to help a person become more self-regulated.Ã¢â¬ (Kranowitz,1998). This plan works best if it is followed at school and at home. Working together with the childÃ¢â¬â¢s family and what goes on at home is very important. The activities must be supervised and they must be appropriate for that specific child. Here are some examples of activities to do from the book Sensory Secrets: Activities involving movement and joint action ? Exercising to music- including walking, skipping, jumping, running, galloping and hopping ? Engage in activates that require pushing, pulling, squeezing, lifting, carrying, twisting, and lugging. ? Jumping activities like jump rope or jumping on the trampoline. ? Playing catch with a variety of objects ? Activities that involve swinging, rocking, climbing, hanging from bars, teeter-totter, and merry-go-rounds. ? Riding a bike or scooter ? Walking on a balance beam Activities involving Touch and Joint Interaction ? Rub lotion on hands and arms ? Splashing in water ? Play musical instruments ? Play with squishy toys ? Play with clay, play-doh, or finger-paints There are many other techniques that can be useful. I know and have used a few. These are my suggestions: ? Weighted vest ? Beanbag chair ? Bag of birdseed to sit on ? Bounce on ball ? Roll ball over child on ground ? Wrap in tight blanket ? Shaving cream ? Sand or rice in small tub ? Vibrating toy ? Squishy ball (or balloon with flour inside) ? Crawling through tunnel ? Obstacle course ? Parachute play ? Trampoline ? scooterboard ? Deep pressure and brushing (if properly trained, please see attachment) ? Suck pudding through straw ? Suck on lollipops while doing work ? Chewing gum There are many different activities that you can do. It all depends on where the need is for that child. Every child in the classroom can benefit from some of these activities. Other activities should be for that student exclusively. The Wilbarger Deep Pressure and Proprioceptive Technique (DPPT) The Creator: The Wilbarger Deep Pressure and Proprioceptive Technique Oral Tactile Technique (OTT) (formerly referred to as the Wilbarger Brushing Protocol or WBP) are techniques developed by Patricia Wilbarger, MEd, OTR, FAOTA. Dr. Wilbarger, is an occupational therapist and clinical psychologist who has been working with sensory processing theories for over 30 years. She is a cofounder of Sensory Integration International and AVANTI camp and well known for her clinical work in the NICU, schools, etc. She lectures internationally on sensory processing disorders and sensory integration. She has produced videotape, audiotape, and an intervention guide on the subject of sensory defensiveness. More information on these publications or training courses are available from Professional Development Programs (Phone: (651) 439-8865, or at www.pdppro.com) Based on the theory of Sensory Integration, the brushing technique uses a specific method of stimulation to help the brain organize sensory information. Ms Wilbarger and her daughter Julia Wilbarger, MS, OTR offer training courses on a regular basis for professionals who wish to use it in their practice. Additionally, through their continuing research, the technique is occasionally revised in method, and it is important for therapists to be aware of the most current method. To use this technique with out instruction from a trained therapist could be harmful at the extreme, and at the minimum, useless. The Theory: Our skin is our largest sensory organ, followed closely by our muscles and skeleton, connected by our nervous system and governed by our brain. The sensory systems feed information from our environment, through sense receptors, and neural impulses via our nervous system, directly to the brain. The brain then organizes it, sends it back through the nervous system for use as understanding, adaptation, learning, and skill development. When this system functions well, it allows a person to interact with their environment efficiently, developing necessary motor and language skills, and appropriate social/emotional behavior. When this system is unable to organize the information appropriately, a variety of symptoms can present; motor delays, tactile defensiveness, learning disorders, social or emotional difficulties, speech, and language deficits or attention disorders. The Purpose and Benefit: The DPPT has been found very beneficial to children with sensory integrative dysfunction, as outlined in the previous paragraph. This technique helps the brain and body work together more effectively. Benefits noted are: ? Can improve ability to transition between activities (calming after emotional outburst, improving tolerance levels.) ? Can help children who have a fear of discomfort in being touched (tactile defensiveness) ? Can increase self regulation, self calming. ? Can increase the ability of the nervous system to use information from the senses more effectively, i.e. speech/motor skills. ? Can improve attention and focus. ? The students generally like the procedure! Benefits received are directly related to correct administration and consistency. The Technique: To use this technique with out instruction from a trained therapist could be harmful at the extreme, and at the minimum, useless. Therapists interested in offering this technique should contact the above mentioned group to be trained at an official seminar. Families should ensure the therapist offering this technique has the most recent training available. Pediatric Building Blocks recommends that anyone who has been shown this technique be updated annually and their technique checked out by a trained therapist. The DPPT uses a specific pattern of stimulation delivered through a specific type of brush and gentle joint compression or Ã¢â¬Å"pushingÃ¢â¬ to send information to the brain in an organized fashion. Simply put, it primes the brain to receive and organize information in an effective and useful way. It is done approximately every two hours for a specified number of days and then according to the needs of the child. Consistency is a critical factor! However, the protocol can be administered in between scheduled sessions, to assisting with transitions between activities, reducing overwhelm reactions, and re- organizing the nervous system after emotional upset. The brush used for this technique, is a soft plastic surgical brush. OTHER TYPES OF BRUSHES ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR THIS TECHNIQUE! This brush has been found to be the most effective in stimulating nerve endings in the skin. The actual brushing is done using a very firm pressure, starting at the arms and working down to the feet, avoiding the chest and stomach. Brushing these sensitive areas may cause urination, defecation or vomiting. The brushing is slow and purposeful providing Ã¢â¬Å"proprioceptionÃ¢â¬ (input through muscles and joints.) It is not Ã¢â¬ËscrubbingÃ¢â¬â¢, and should never be painful, or cause damage to the skin. Children may initially react with crying or other avoidance measures because it is new, and the re-organizing can be disquieting. Generally within a few sessions, it becomes pleasurable and children will often ask for it or do it themselves. The joint compression is also done in a specific pattern; ten count repetition, using light pressure. Students can be taught to do this themselves, by using an alternative method of Ã¢â¬ËwallÃ¢â¬â¢ push-ups, and jumping. The final component is the oral swipe, used for Oral defensiveness, although this is sometimes omitted in schools due to hygiene and/or safety concerns, as it requires fingers in the mouth. Again, students can be taught to do this themselves. No part of this technique should ever be painful or cause physical damage. From Pediatric Building Blocks I have been trained and certified in this brushing technique. References Ayers, A. Jean.Ph.D. (1972). Sensory Integration and Learning Disorders. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Cheatum, B., and Hammond, A., Physical activities for improving childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning and behavior. (2000), Illinois:Human Kinetics Kranowitz, Carol Stock, M.A. (1998). The out-of-sync child, Recognizing and coping with Sensory Integration Dysfunction. NY: Skylight Press. Schneider, Catherine Chemin, O.T.R., Sensory Secrets, How to jump start learning in children. (2001). Arkansas: Concerned Communications. Websites Hatch-Rasmussen, Cindy M.A., OTR/L (1995). Sensory Integration. Center for Autism. www.autism.org/si.html Pediatric Building Blocks. The Wilbarger Deep Pressure and Proprioceptive Technique (DPPT). www.pbbkids.com/the_wilbarger_brushing_protocol.htm SPD Network (2004) What is Sensory Processing Disorder? www.spdnetwork.org/aboutspd/whatisspd.html Stephens, Linda C.MS, OTR/L. FAOTA (1997) Sensory Integrative Dysfunction in Young Children SEE/HEAR www.tsbvi.edu/Outreach/seehear/fall97/sensory.htm Interview Rebecca Roe OTR/L Occupational Therapist Pediatric Building Blocks Research Papers on Sensory Integration Dysfunction/ Sensory Processing DisorderThree Concepts of PsychodynamicBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfOpen Architechture a white paperStandardized TestingNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenThe Project Managment Office SystemGenetic EngineeringRiordan Manufacturing Production PlanIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in Capital
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Case 29 - Coursework Example Equally, United Technologies Corporation has not been left out in same scenarios. Integrating the new branch previously run from a different forum from that of UTC forms the companys crisis. The large population of 46000 employees also hinders the companys integration of the Chubb system. United Technologies Corporation faces the challenges of harmonizing the new task force with their code of conduct. The aspect of integration becomes a challenge since the employees served under the company that lacked ethics. Therefore, there is a likelihood of experiencing resistances from the employees. The other obstacle is the distance. Most of the ChubbÃ¢â¬â¢s sub branches are located far away from the Headquarters. It is then evident that, training process of the employee will require more investment due to movements, and time since the distribution of systems spread across the globe. The concept of open management structure is the other obstacle. There is no organized structure entrusted wi th the management. The employees report to their place of working. Lack of technological infrastructure poses another obstacle in the aspect of integration since the top management cannot effectively communicate with the employees in their working locations. Finally, the aspect of cultural diversity of the employees poses another challenge. Despite the various challenges, Gnazzo must be prepared to employ the strength of the organization to counter the weakness of the new system branch being adopted. As long as Chubby is bringing value to UTC, then the project is worth consideration. Gnazzo has to put in place the necessary infrastructures to ensure that, the above obstacles get eliminated and at the same time ensure minimum cost is incurred by the organization. Furthermore, He will be required to choose the right team to eliminate the various obstacles. Necessary resources will also be a required. In this whole process, it is GnazzoÃ¢â¬â¢s role to ensure that, the competitors have no
Monday, February 10, 2020
WG 5 - Coursework Example I also agree with the statement that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s deadliest disease is poverty. It is for this reason that the United States government has put in place measures and policies aimed at alleviating poverty amongst women. Other nations have followed suit as well. I must say I am proud to be a lady. I feel whole in a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body and sometimes I feel like I would not be equally contented with life if I were a man. There are no specific illustrations for this thought but I still like I am better off as a lady as opposed to as a man. The fact that I am able to wear makeup and be obsessed about my good looks makes me feel good about my body. When I fall sick, I immediately feel fatigue and nausea inconsiderate of the illness. However, when I am healthy, I am always enthusiastic about virtually everything. The health issue that is most prevalent in women in my community is cancer, especially breast cancer. This is mostly seen in older women though. For younger women, body weight is a serious issue in my locality. Most ladies always want to lose weight as compared to those who want to lose some
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Working Partnership Essay 3.1 Explain why it is important to work in partnership with others. It is important that you work in partnership with all of the people surrounding the individuals that you are supporting, in order to ensure the best possible support and care are provided. This will include Carers, Families, Advocates and other people who are sometimes called Ã¢â¬Å"Significant OthersÃ¢â¬ . In order to work well in partnership, there has to be good communication therefore you will need to have good communication skills. Other people may be able to provide useful information to support you in your work, and you may be able to find useful information to support them in being part of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. An example might be if there are communication difficulties. A Carer or Family member can share information on how you can communicate efficiently with the individual. Therefore this enables the individual to be listened to and supported in ways that they desire and choose. 3.2 Identify ways of working that can help improve partnership working. To learn from other and working in partnership is important. It will help you to understand the aims and objectives of different people and partner Organisations, as they may have different views, attitudes, and approaches. It is important that everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is on providing the best care to individuals. By supporting the individual to achieve goals and to be as independent as possible, to respect and maintain the dignity and privacy of individuals. Making sure you promote equal opportunities and respect diversity and different cultures and values. By making sure you report dangerous, abusive, discriminatory or exploitative behavour or practice. By Communicating in an appropriate, open, accurate and straight forward way. Treat everyone as an individual. You must share knowledge and respect views of others, help to achieve positive outcomes for individuals. Always feedback any concerns you may have to you r manager/supervisor, even if it feels minor to you it can be important evidence. 3.3 Identify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts. Skills and approaches you will need for resolving conflicts are managing your stress levels, remaining calm in all situations, being aware of both verbal and non-verbal communication, by making sure you do not use any jargon and talking so everyone involved can understand you. Make sure you control your emotions and behaviour towards others, as aggressive behaviour can be intimidating. Avoid threatening others, pay attention to the feelings being expressed as well as the spoken words. Respect the differences of the individual, develop a readiness to forgive and forget. Have the ability to compromise, try and find a way to resolve the situation. Try to avoid making assumptions and accusations, as this can make the situation much worse. You must try not to over generalise and stick to the facts of what went on. Active listening plays a big part in trying to resolve conflict, as the person will feel that you are paying a ttention to them. 3.4 Explain when and how to access support and advice about: Partnership working Ã¢â¬â You will need to seek advice and support when there is a dilemma that you need help in solving. Support and advice can come from your colleagues, your supervisor/manager, external agencies i.e. Care Quality Commission, Social Services, Unions i.e. Trade Union. CarerÃ¢â¬â¢s Organisations such like the Health Care Professionals Council, Workforce Development Council and Sector Skills Council for Care. Resolving conflict Ã¢â¬â You can resolve conflict with colleagues or managers by going to Employment Counselling or Mentoring Support or where possible you can go to a Trade Union. Issues with individuals or their families you can go to an Independent Advisory Organisation such like Citizens Advice Bauru.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
The above figure shows the annual real GDP growth and per capita GDP growth in India since 1990 til 2011. Mr Ruchir says,Ã¢â¬ As the poorest of the big emerging markets, with a per capita income of just $1500, India is hardly overachieving; it is always easier to grow fast from a low base. Since the early 1980s, when the government cut back its monopoly on most imports and started easing rules about who could manufacture what and in which quantities, India has finished each decade with an average GDP growth rate about 1 to 2 percentage points faster than the emerging market average. That is unusually consistent but not particularly impressive-its standard for emerging nations in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s low-income class.Ã¢â¬ He talks about the decrease in manufacturing jobs in India. But a survey by Morgan Stanley shows this is the case with developed countries as well. On the IMF rankings of nations by rate of inflation, India plunged to 122nd in 2012, from an average ranking of 65 between 1980 and 2010. Sharma says, Ã¢â¬Å"Low inflation has been the hallmark of sustained economic success from Japan in the 1960... Essay -- The above figure shows the annual real GDP growth and per capita GDP growth in India since 1990 til 2011. Mr Ruchir says,Ã¢â¬ As the poorest of the big emerging markets, with a per capita income of just $1500, India is hardly overachieving; it is always easier to grow fast from a low base. Since the early 1980s, when the government cut back its monopoly on most imports and started easing rules about who could manufacture what and in which quantities, India has finished each decade with an average GDP growth rate about 1 to 2 percentage points faster than the emerging market average. That is unusually consistent but not particularly impressive-its standard for emerging nations in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s low-income class.Ã¢â¬ He talks about the decrease in manufacturing jobs in India. But a survey by Morgan Stanley shows this is the case with developed countries as well. On the IMF rankings of nations by rate of inflation, India plunged to 122nd in 2012, from an average ranking of 65 between 1980 and 2010. Sharma says, Ã¢â¬Å"Low inflation has been the hallmark of sustained economic success from Japan in the 1960...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Airport as being fully privately owned enterprise is very important problem. There were a lot of conferences, dedicated to this problem, which tried to examine and study experience of world practice of privatizing and shareholding of airports as one of means to increase effectiveness of work in conditions of market relations.Some countries cannot make airports being fully privately owned enterprises because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have legal securing in governmental property of usage airports.Absences of legalized documents which give right of management by governmental property donÃ¢â¬â¢t give opportunity to attract foreign investors, limit development of non-aviation activity, and create a lot of other problems. So, holding such conferences is a good opportunity to determine conditions of reforms in civil aviation and to analyze development of business in airports.Nowadays integration processes and economic reforms which take place in Europe create qualitative new situation in the fiel d of air transport. In these conditions coordination of efforts in the country, forming of legal regulations and regulation of activity of aircraft companies, airports and other organizations of this field, directed at guaranteeing of safety flights and protection of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests is very important.During last dozen of years more then one hundred of governmental aircraft enterprises and airports were made fully privately owned enterprises in Russia Ã¢â¬â it is more then in countries of Europe, USA and Canada. In the United States the attempts to privatize airports are more successful working with small airports (Robert Poole and Adrian Moore p.2)There was a possibility to rent an airport a little bit earlier. Actually, anybody was able to rent an airport, runway, avian stations, etc Ã¢â¬â anybody who paid more. Airport didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any advantage during that rent. The tasks of leaser, which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care of airportÃ¢â¬â¢s problems, are easy to unders tand: to get higher profit from lease. And nobody knows how the leaser will take care of that leased property.Aircraft Company, on the contrary, is interested in maintenance of that property on necessary level, because it gets main funds from take-off and landing. (Robert W. Poole p.3)We came to conclusion also that making airport fully privately owned enterprise shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be made by impulse. It takes years in the European countries to get all permissions to make airport privately owned.Some aircraft companies consider purchase of airports to be very profitable. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"Austrian AirlinesÃ¢â¬ pans to buy airport of Bratislava (Slovakia). The matter it that BratislavaÃ¢â¬â¢s airport is located 20 km from Vienna and Austrians want to use this airport as dispersal field. Besides, Slovakia enters European Union and quantity of flight to Bratislava can be increased. Austrians hope to become the main airline not only in Austria, but in neighbor Slovakia.Indian gover nment also decided to give Ã¢â¬Å"green lightÃ¢â¬ to make two biggest governmental airports fully privately owned enterprises, which are located in administrative capital of country New Delhi and financial capital Mumbai (the city, which was known as Bombay).The minister of civil Aviation Rajiv Pratap Rudy announced in September 11, 2003 that cabinet of ministers adopted plans to sell 74 percent share holdings of both airports to private enterprises. Within eight months government will prepare to auction and to finish receiving of applications (Reuters agency p.1).Airports will be transformed in two separate companies, with partial participation of government. Accordingly, the companies will be made privately owned separately, with help of auctions. Airports Authority of India, AAI Ã¢â¬â governmental department, which controls 130 airports in the whole territory of country, will keep 26 percent share holding as well as functions of safety and management of air movement. In suc h a way the airports will have opportunity to become huge international junctions and to start compete actively with other airports of regions, as well as between themselves.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The Problem of Poverty: Welfare in America For centuries, nations, cities, and individual families have dealt with the problem of poverty; how to remedy current situations and how to prevent future ones. For most of history, there have been no government controlled poverty assistance programs. The poor simply relied on the goodness of their families or, if they did not have a family, on the generosity of the public at large. In the United States, this situation changed in 1935 with the passage of the Social Security Act. The Social Security Act has seen many successes, but it also faces many critiques of its structure and function. In the past, most governments did little to actively aid their poor population. This duty wasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In 1935, Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Social Security Act which, among other things, provided for the financial, medical, and material needs of the poor (Komisar 125,128). Since then, there have many additions and reforms to the bill, none of which has served to que ll the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of the welfare system in the United States. The main concerns of the distribution of welfare dollars and resources can be answered by the questions ?Who gets assistance and ?How much do they receive. The U.S. welfare system is administered by the Department of Health and Human Services, which attempts to answer these questions through a system of minimum incomes, government-calculated poverty levels, number of children, health problems, and many other criteria. This complicated system leads to one of the critiques of the welfare system?that it is too large and inefficient. President Lyndon Johnson declared a ?War on Poverty? in 1964 designed to alleviate the burden of the poor and established the Food Stamp program the next year (Patterson 139). In 1996, a major welfare reform bill was passed that placed time limits on welfare assistance, required able participants to actively seek employment, and implemented additional services for t he needy (Patterson 217). The effects of this latest reform are still being studied, but one thing isShow MoreRelatedPoverty in America: Government Welfare Programs are the Problem2373 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAbstract Poverty effected many individual families around the world for many years, and it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1935, The Social Security Act was passed, therefore assisting many families in need. The effects of poverty is an extraordinarily obscure social experience, and the finding those causes is very similar. As a result, sociologists considered other theories of poverty, such as the journey of the middle class, employers, from the cities into the suburbs. 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By the 1980s welfare programsRead MoreCombating Poverty in America: Time For a Change1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPresident Johnson is well known for making major policy reform in order to combat poverty. Welfare, a social program designed to combat poverty, has been a controversial issue for many years and has been reformed under the Clinton and Bush administrations. In 1996 President Bill Clinton brought welfare reform to congress with help from the Republican Party. Newt Gingrich and Bob Dole led the reform action. President Clinton vetoed the first two bills presented, but later proposed a third versionRead MoreHow People Struggle With A Child s Home And Neighborhood862 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbook how people struggle with that thi n line and how the battle of living that way usually never ends for most people. Because of that constant ring of being on and off of welfare parents are forced to live in UN ruling neighborhoods and use UN reliable child care. The effects of doing this have a drastic result of the children living in the situations that they have no control over. Gould and glad discuss the unreeling effects living this way has on children stating. Ã¢â¬Å"- Two of the five leadingRead More The Working Poor Essay769 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAmericans are working full time jobs that are below the Federal poverty line. These types of people are often called the Ã¢â¬Å"working poorÃ¢â¬ . Due to this the working poor have to run to welfare. This affects all Americans because taxpayers are the ones paying for welfare. The more jobs that are taken overseas, the more poverty we will have. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;It is now said that the middle-class Americans are now becoming the poor in America. According to William H. Jasper of the New American magazine:Read MoreRacial Discrimination858 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestopic: Does racial discrimination cause poverty among black people in America? The scene of ghettosThe with poor living conditions of the ghettos in whichwhere black people live is not uncommon., Iit actually manifests a larger picture of racial discrimination which is closely related to poverty. Racial discrimination is about the pre-conceived notion that black people are inferior; they are more prone to violence and totally relianty on social welfare to survive. As a result of these stereotypical